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1. ROSE GA, REED GW, SMITH AH: ISOTOPIC METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF CALCIUM ABSORPTION FROM THE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT. Br Med J; 1965 Mar 13;1(5436):690-2
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  • [Title] ISOTOPIC METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF CALCIUM ABSORPTION FROM THE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Calcium Isotopes. Calcium, Dietary. Chemistry Techniques, Analytical. Chromium Isotopes. Feces. Fluids and Secretions. Gastrointestinal Tract. Intestinal Absorption. Osteomalacia. Osteoporosis

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  • (PMID = 14245206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1447
  • [Journal-full-title] British medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Isotopes; 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Chromium Isotopes; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2166381
  • [Keywords] NLM ; CALCIUM ISOTOPES (major topic) / CALCIUM METABOLISM (major topic) / CALCIUM, DIETARY (major topic) / CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL (major topic) / CHROMIUM ISOTOPES (major topic) / EXCRETION (major topic) / FECES (major topic) / INTESTINAL ABSORPTION (major topic) / OSTEOMALACIA (major topic) / OSTEOPOROSIS (major topic)
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2. Brown WR, Borthistle BK, Chen ST: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE-containing cells in human gastrointestinal fluids and tissues. Clin Exp Immunol; 1975 May;20(2):227-37
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  • [Title] Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE-containing cells in human gastrointestinal fluids and tissues.
  • Human gastric, small intestinal, colonic and rectal mucosae were examined for IgE-containing cells by single- and double-antibody immunofluorescence techniques, and IgE in intesinal fluids was measured by a double-antibody radioimmunoassay.
  • Measurable IgE was found in seventy-eight of eighty-five (92%) intestinal fluids.
  • Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of four of the fluids revealed that the immunologically reactive IgE was largely in fractions corresponding to molecules of lower molecular weight than that of albumin, which suggests that IgE in gut contents is degraded by proteolytic enzymes.
  • The presence of IgE-forming cells in gastrointestinal tissues, and IgE or a fragment of IgE in intestinal fluids, suggests that IgE antibodies are available for participation in local reaginic-type reactions in the gut.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin E / analysis. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Intestines / immunology. Stomach / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibody-Producing Cells. Colon / immunology. Crohn Disease / immunology. Duodenal Ulcer / immunology. Gastric Mucosa / immunology. Humans. Immunodiffusion. Intestinal Mucosa / immunology. Molecular Weight. Radioimmunoassay. Rectum / immunology. Stomach Ulcer / immunology

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  • (PMID = 813925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9104
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1538192
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3. Mohsin K: Design of lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate: effects of digestion. AAPS PharmSciTech; 2012 Jun;13(2):637-46
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  • Lipid-based drug carriers are likely to have influence on bioavailability through enhanced solubilization of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The study was designed to investigate the lipid formulation digestibility in the simulated gastro intestinal media.
  • The formulations were subjected to in vitro digestion specifically to predict the fate of the drug in the gastro intestinal tract after exposure of the formulation to pancreatic enzymes and bile.
  • In vitro digestion experiments were carried out using a pH-stat maintained at pH 7.5 for 30 min using intestinal fluids simulating the fed and fasted states.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Bile Acids and Salts / chemistry. Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Excipients / chemistry. Fatty Acids / chemistry. Fatty Acids / metabolism. Glycerides / chemistry. Glycerides / metabolism. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Absorption. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Kinetics. Lipase / chemistry. Lipase / metabolism. Pancreas / enzymology. Solubility. Solvents / chemistry. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 22547370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9932
  • [Journal-full-title] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Glycerides; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase; U202363UOS / Fenofibrate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3364387
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4. Hammond K, Graybill T, Speiss SE, Lu J, Leikin JB: A complicated hospitalization following dilute ammonium chloride ingestion. J Med Toxicol; 2009 Dec;5(4):218-22
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  • Due to persistent cough, copious oral secretions, and worsening hoarseness, the patient was intubated and admitted to the ICU.
  • Her course was complicated by mild hypotension, nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, and oliguria treated successfully with intravenous (IV) fluids.
  • An upper GI swallow study revealed poor esophageal motility in the mid- to lower third of the esophagus.
  • The patient gradually tolerated oral fluids and on hospital day 20 had her tracheostomy tube removed.
  • CONCLUSION: Intentional ingestions of dilute ammonium chloride solutions can cause serious injury to the gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary systems, which can result in a complicated and prolonged hospitalization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchoscopy. Esophagoscopy. Female. Gastroscopy. Humans. Middle Aged. Severity of Illness Index. Suicide, Attempted

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  • (PMID = 19876856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-9039
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 01Q9PC255D / Ammonium Chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3550414
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5. LYON RP: The prevention of the fluid-electrolyte "problem" by simple means. Calif Med; 1950 Oct;73(4):303-8
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  • Daily weighing of patients, measurement of fluid intake and output, and knowledge of the probable electrolyte content of fluid losses are adequate guides for replacement of fluids and electrolytes.
  • An increase in body weight is a warning of overhydration.The content of the solution used for replacement is dictated by the route of fluid output-whether from the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, or the kidneys.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid-Base Imbalance. Body Fluids. Body Weight. Drinking. Electrolytes. Fluids and Secretions. General Surgery. Probability. Water Loss, Insensible. Water-Electrolyte Balance. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance

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  • (PMID = 14772651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-1264
  • [Journal-full-title] California medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Calif Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5120:2329:298:344:347; NLM/ PMC1520476
  • [Keywords] NLM ; ELECTROLYTES (major topic) / FLUIDS (major topic) / SURGERY (major topic)
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6. Vipperla K, O'Keefe SJ: Targeted therapy of short-bowel syndrome with teduglutide: the new kid on the block. Clin Exp Gastroenterol; 2014;7:489-95
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  • Extensive intestinal resection impairs the absorptive capacity and results in short-bowel syndrome-associated intestinal failure (SBS-IF), when fluid, electrolyte, acid-base, micro-, and macronutrient homeostasis cannot be maintained on a conventional oral diet.
  • Several factors, including the length and site of the resected intestine, anatomical conformation of the remnant bowel, and the degree of postresection intestinal adaptation determine the disease severity.
  • While mild SBS patients achieve nutritional autonomy with dietary modification (eg, hyperphagia, small frequent meals, and oral rehydration fluids), those with moderate-to-severe disease may develop SBS-IF and become dependent on parenteral support (PS) in the form of intravenous fluids and/or nutrition for sustenance of life.
  • In pursuit of a targeted therapy to augment intestinal adaptation, research over the past 2 decades has identified glucagon-like peptide, an intestinotrophic gut peptide that has been shown to enhance intestinal absorptive capacity by causing an increase in the villus length, crypt depth, and mesenteric blood flow and by decreasing gastrointestinal motility and secretions.

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  • (PMID = 25525380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-7023
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4266252
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; glucagon-like peptide-2 / intestinal adaptation / short-gut syndrome / teduglutide
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7. Bystrom J, Amin K, Bishop-Bailey D: Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein--a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte. Respir Res; 2011;12:10
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  • Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen.
  • This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions.

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  • (PMID = 21235798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-993X
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / British Heart Foundation / / PG/08/070/25464
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 3.1.27.- / Eosinophil Cationic Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3030543
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8. Kirsch W: [The influence of gastro-intestinal secretions on immunoglobulins from milk and serum]. Helv Paediatr Acta; 1970 Apr;25(2):119-26
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  • [Title] [The influence of gastro-intestinal secretions on immunoglobulins from milk and serum].
  • [Transliterated title] Der Einfluss von Magen-Darm-Sekreten auf Immunglobuline aus Milch und Serum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Fluids / secretion. Cattle. Duodenum / secretion. Feces / analysis. Female. Gastric Juice / secretion. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 5463225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-022X
  • [Journal-full-title] Helvetica paediatrica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Helv Paediatr Acta
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases
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9. Sörgel F, Jaehde U, Naber K, Stephan U: Pharmacokinetic disposition of quinolones in human body fluids and tissues. Clin Pharmacokinet; 1989;16 Suppl 1:5-24
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  • [Title] Pharmacokinetic disposition of quinolones in human body fluids and tissues.
  • Quinolones are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are eliminated with considerable differences in their terminal half-lives.
  • In addition, quinolones can interact with a number of other compounds at hepatic (e.g. with xanthine derivatives), renal (with probenecid) and gastrointestinal (with antacids) sites.
  • With the exception of those in nasal secretions and ejaculate, body fluid levels of these drugs rarely reach plasma levels.
  • For the clinical use of these drugs it is important that the concentrations achieved in body fluids and tissues are sufficient to kill most pathogens.
  • [MeSH-minor] 4-Quinolones. Animals. Body Fluids / metabolism. Humans. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 2653696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0312-5963
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pharmacokinetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pharmacokinet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] NEW ZEALAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-Quinolones; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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10. Bateson MC, Hopwood D, Milne G, Bouchier IA: Oesophageal epithelial ultrastructure after incubation with gastrointestinal fluids and their components. J Pathol; 1981 Jan;133(1):33-51
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  • [Title] Oesophageal epithelial ultrastructure after incubation with gastrointestinal fluids and their components.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophagus / ultrastructure. Gastric Juice / physiology. Intestinal Secretions / physiology

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  • (PMID = 6782215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Culture Media; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin; EC 3.4.23.1 / Pepsin A
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11. Madden JF, Burchette JL Jr, Hale LP: Pathology of parainfluenza virus infection in patients with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes. Hum Pathol; 2004 May;35(5):594-603
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  • All 6 patients exhibited typical cytopathic effects of parainfluenza virus, including giant cell formation, in lung and/or bronchial tissues.
  • Parainfluenza virus infection was also documented by giant cell formation and immunohistochemistry in the pancreas (in 3 of 6 patients) and the kidney or bladder (in 2 of 4 patients).
  • Anti-parainfluenza antibody also specifically reacted with cells in the gastrointestinal tract (in 2 of 4), spleen (in 4 of 6), thymus and/or lymph nodes (in 4 of 4), and small blood vessels in various organs (in 4 of 6).
  • Because this virus is capable of infecting tissues in the gastrointestinal and urinary systems as well as in the respiratory tract, body secretions and fluids from each of these locations should be considered potentially infectious.

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  • (PMID = 15138935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Classical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. FOX CL, LASKER SE: Fluid therapy in surgical emergencies including hemorrhage, loss of gastrointestinal fluids, and thermal burns. Surg Clin North Am; 1955 Apr;New York No.:335-53
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  • [Title] Fluid therapy in surgical emergencies including hemorrhage, loss of gastrointestinal fluids, and thermal burns.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids. Burns. Electrolytes / metabolism. Emergencies. Fluid Therapy. Fluids and Secretions / therapeutic use. Hemorrhage

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  • (PMID = 14373396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5528:24273:98:196:230
  • [Keywords] NLM ; BODY FLUIDS (major topic) / ELECTROLYTES/metabolism (major topic) / FLUIDS/therapeutic use (major topic)
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13. Pollock RE, Ames FC, Ota DM, Mansell P: A surgical oncology perspective on AIDS. Semin Surg Oncol; 1985;1(3):153-60
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  • Approximately 80% of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma have identifiable gastrointestinal lesions.
  • Health care personnel treating patients with AIDS should also wear masks and eye protection against the splatter of body fluids and secretions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma / surgery. Sarcoma, Kaposi / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery


14. Farthing MJ: The role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of refractory diarrhoea. Digestion; 1996;57 Suppl 1:107-13
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  • Octreotide inhibits intestinal motility and secretions of the gastro-intestinal tract and pancreas and mediators of diarrhoea and so is very useful in managing refractory diarrhoea.
  • It is safe and effective in 75-80% of the 10-20% of cancer chemotherapy patients who develop severe diarrhoea, and is useful in the management of persistent diarrhoea associated with neuroendocrine tumours, particularly VIPoma and carcinoid tumours, congenital microvillus atrophy, some patients with the short bowel syndrome (giving them a reduced need for intravenous fluids), and AIDS-related diarrhoea that does not respond to antibiotics or conventional anti-diarrhoeal drugs.
  • Octreotide may prove useful as a tool for studying the pathogenesis of diarrhoea of diverse aetiologies, particularly those associated with disturbances of intestinal motility, such as irritable bowel syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Diarrhea / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 8813486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-2823
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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15. Schulze KS: The imaging and modelling of the physical processes involved in digestion and absorption. Acta Physiol (Oxf); 2015 Feb;213(2):394-405
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  • The mechanical activity of the gastro-intestinal tract serves to store, propel and digest food.
  • Contractions disperse particles and transform solids and secretions into the two-phase slurry called chyme; movements of the intestine deliver nutrients to mucosal sites of absorption, and from the submucosa into the lymphatic and portal venous circulation.
  • We outline how dynamic imaging by ultrasound and magnetic resonance can demonstrate intestinal flow processes critical to digestion like mixing, dilution, swelling, dispersion and elution.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / physiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Digestion / physiology. Gastrointestinal Tract / physiology. Stress, Mechanical

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  • [Copyright] © 2014 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
  • (PMID = 25313872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-1716
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; chyme / gastric accommodation and emptying / intestinal fluid mechanics / intestinal peristalsis and transit / luminal mixing
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16. Morimoto N, Korenaga M, Yagyu K, Kagei N, Fujieda M, Bain O, Wakiguchi H, Hashiguchi Y, Sugiura T: Morphological observations and the effects of artificial digestive fluids on the survival of Diploscapter coronata from a Japanese patient. J Helminthol; 2006 Dec;80(4):341-8
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  • [Title] Morphological observations and the effects of artificial digestive fluids on the survival of Diploscapter coronata from a Japanese patient.
  • Worm survival time and hatchability of the eggs were examined in vitro after treatment with an artificial gastric or intestinal fluid.
  • This suggests that eggs accidentally ingested or produced by adult D. coronata could develop in the human gastro-intestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Child. Eggs. Feces / parasitology. Female. Gastric Juice. Host-Parasite Interactions. Humans. Intestinal Secretions. Japan. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Parasite Egg Count. Parasitology / methods. Rhabditida Infections / transmission

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  • (PMID = 17125542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-149X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of helminthology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Helminthol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Antoine D, Pellequer Y, Tempesta C, Lorscheidt S, Kettel B, Tamaddon L, Jannin V, Demarne F, Lamprecht A, Béduneau A: Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine. Int J Pharm; 2015 Mar 15;481(1-2):27-36
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  • Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT).
  • One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT.
  • Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF).
  • Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated.
  • In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture.
  • Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic β-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids.
  • Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Secretions. Intestines / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Transport. Caco-2 Cells. Cell Survival. Coculture Techniques. HT29 Cells. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Mucus / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Permeability. Propranolol / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • (PMID = 25601199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Biorelevant media / Caco-2 cells / Co-culture / Intestinal absorption / Mucus
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18. Barbieri S, Sonvico F, Como C, Colombo G, Zani F, Buttini F, Bettini R, Rossi A, Colombo P: Lecithin/chitosan controlled release nanopreparations of tamoxifen citrate: loading, enzyme-trigger release and cell uptake. J Control Release; 2013 May 10;167(3):276-83
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  • The release of the drug from the LCN-TAM colloidal dispersion was measured, showing that tamoxifen citrate was released very slowly in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids without enzymes.
  • Caco-2 cells, used as a model of the intestinal epithelium, were shown to take up the TAM loaded nanoparticles extensively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Transport. Caco-2 Cells. Cell Survival / drug effects. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Lipase / chemistry. MCF-7 Cells. Muramidase / chemistry. Pancreatin / chemistry. Progesterone / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23428841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Lecithins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 8049-47-6 / Pancreatin; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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19. Siepmann F, Wahle C, Leclercq B, Carlin B, Siepmann J: pH-sensitive film coatings: towards a better understanding and facilitated optimization. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2008 Jan;68(1):2-10
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  • The major aims of this study were: (i) to prepare and characterize polymeric film coatings with pH-dependent properties for oral administration; and (ii) to better understand the underlying mass transport mechanisms upon exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids.
  • Propylene glycol alginate (containing free carboxylic groups) was chosen as a pH-sensitive film former, which was blended with different amounts of ethylcellulose (being water-insoluble throughout the gastro-intestinal tract).
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Diffusion. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Kinetics. Theophylline / chemistry. Water / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17881197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; 9004-57-3 / ethyl cellulose; 9005-37-2 / propylene glycol alginate ester; C137DTR5RG / Theophylline
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20. Merchant HA, Rabbie SC, Varum FJ, Afonso-Pereira F, Basit AW: Influence of ageing on the gastrointestinal environment of the rat and its implications for drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci; 2014 Oct 1;62:76-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of ageing on the gastrointestinal environment of the rat and its implications for drug delivery.
  • Using rats of different age groups we measured the pH, buffer capacity, fluid volume, osmolality, and surface tension of gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, and therein explored the impact of these variables on prednisolone and mesalazine solubility in luminal fluids.
  • We also studied the distribution of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and mucus layer thickness across the GI tract in rats of different age groups.
  • Gastrointestinal pH and buffer capacity remained mostly unchanged with age, except some pH differences in stomach and distal small intestine and a higher buffer capacity in the large intestinal fluids of young rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Gastrointestinal Tract / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PREDNISOLONE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24834990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Geriatrics / Laboratory animals / Mesalamine / Mesalamine (PubChem CID: 4075) / Paediatrics / Personalised medicine / Pre-clinical studies / Prednisolone (PubChem CID: 5755)
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21. Carafa M, Marianecci C, Annibaldi V, Di Stefano A, Sozio P, Santucci E: Novel O-palmitoylscleroglucan-coated liposomes as drug carriers: development, characterization and interaction with leuprolide. Int J Pharm; 2006 Nov 15;325(1-2):155-62
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  • Polysaccharide-coated liposomes have been studied for their potential use for peptide drug delivery by the oral route because they are able to minimize the disruptive influences on peptide drugs of gastrointestinal fluids.
  • We studied the surface modification of liposomes and the SCG- and PSCG-coated liposomes were characterized in terms of size, shape, zeta potential, influence of polymer coating on bilayer fluidity, stability in serum, in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids and against sodium cholate and pancreatin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Drug Stability. Fertility Agents, Female / administration & dosage. Fertility Agents, Female / chemistry. Fertility Agents, Female / pharmacokinetics. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Lipid Bilayers / chemistry. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Nanotechnology / methods. Pancreatin / chemistry. Pancreatin / metabolism. Particle Size. Sodium Cholate / chemistry. Sodium Cholate / metabolism. Spectrophotometry, Infrared / methods. Static Electricity

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  • (PMID = 16884870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 0 / Glucans; 0 / Lipid Bilayers; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / O-palmitoylscleroglucan; 39464-87-4 / scleroglucan; 8049-47-6 / Pancreatin; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide; NU3Y4CCH8Z / Sodium Cholate
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22. Weinberg ED: The therapeutic potential of lactoferrin. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2003 May;12(5):841-51
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  • Lactoferrin (Lf), a natural defence iron-binding protein, is present in exocrine secretions that are commonly exposed to normal flora: milk, tears, nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervicovaginal mucus and seminal fluid.
  • A principal function of Lf is that of scavenging non-protein-bound iron in body fluids and inflamed areas so as to suppress free radical-mediated damage and decrease accessibility of the metal to invading bacterial, fungal and neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. Adjuvants, Immunologic / biosynthesis. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Anti-Infective Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / adverse effects. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Body Fluids / metabolism. Humans. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / adverse effects. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12720494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1354-3784
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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23. Moreno-Fierros L, Domínguez-Robles MC, Enríquez-Rincón F: The use of an ELISPOT assay to evaluate intestinal and systemic antibody responses to locally administered Entamoeba histolytica antigen in mice. Arch Med Res; 1994;25(2):183-7
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  • [Title] The use of an ELISPOT assay to evaluate intestinal and systemic antibody responses to locally administered Entamoeba histolytica antigen in mice.
  • This work reports some of our recent studies aimed to induce optimal immune responses against E. histolytica in mice and to describe a novel approach for monitoring mucosal immune responses induced in the gastrointestinal tract and expressed locally and systemically.
  • We also determined the total antibody response in intestinal fluids and the antibody secretions from spleen and PP cells in vitro and found differences between male and female mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis. Antibodies, Protozoan / biosynthesis. Antigens, Protozoan / pharmacology. Entamoeba histolytica / immunology. Entamoebiasis / immunology. Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / immunology. Intestines / immunology

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  • (PMID = 7919810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] MEXICO
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Protozoan; 0 / Antigens, Protozoan; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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24. Weinberg ED: Human lactoferrin: a novel therapeutic with broad spectrum potential. J Pharm Pharmacol; 2001 Oct;53(10):1303-10
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  • The protein is present in exocrine secretions that are commonly exposed to normal flora: milk, tears, nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervico-vaginal mucus and seminal fluid.
  • A principal function of Lf is that of scavenging free iron in fluids and inflamed areas so as to suppress free radical-mediated damage and decrease the availability of the metal to invading microbial and neoplastic cells.

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  • (PMID = 11697537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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25. Chiba T, Phillips SF: Alcohol-related diarrhea. Addict Biol; 2000 Apr 1;5(2):117-25
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  • Here, we review the effects of alcohol on gastrointestinal morphology, function, its nervous system and motility.
  • Acute administration of alcohol inhibits absorption of nutrients and fluids, and can stimulate secretion of water and electrolytes.
  • Bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine and decreased pancreatic secretions have been also described in chronic alcoholics.
  • Any, or all, of these changes in gastrointestinal functions may contribute to diarrhea in acute binge drinkers and chronic alcoholics.

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  • (PMID = 20575826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-1600
  • [Journal-full-title] Addiction biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Addict Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kulski JK, Hartmann PE: Changes in the concentration of cortisol in milk during different stages of human lactation. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci; 1981 Dec;59(Pt 6):769-78
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  • The concentration of cortisol (mean +/- S.E.M.) was relatively high in the mammary secretions during late pregnancy (25.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml) and decreased within 2 days after delivery (10.2 +/- 2.0 ng/ml) to reach low values by 10 days post partum (1.8 +/- 0.7 ng/ml).
  • However, it is possible that cortisol in breast milk may help to control the transport of fluids and salts from the gastrointestinal tract of infants.

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  • (PMID = 7340774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-945X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Khadra I, Zhou Z, Dunn C, Wilson CG, Halbert G: Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs. Eur J Pharm Sci; 2015 Jan 25;67:65-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.
  • A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system.
  • This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes.
  • Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values.
  • This illustrates the complex nature of these fluids and provides for individual drugs a visualisation of the possible solubility envelope within the gastrointestinal tract, which may be of importance for modelling in vivo behaviour.
  • In addition the results indicate that the design of experiment approach can be employed to provide greater detail of drug solubility behaviour, possible drug specific interactions and influence of variations in gastrointestinal media components due to disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. OLEIC ACID .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM OLEATE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 25444845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lecithins; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 0 / Phosphates; 2UMI9U37CP / Oleic Acid; 399SL044HN / osteum; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 5E090O0G3Z / Taurocholic Acid; 8049-47-6 / Pancreatin; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acid / Base / Biorelevant / Design of experiment / Neutral / Solubility
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28. Brandtzaeg P, Bjerke K, Kett K, Kvale D, Rognum TO, Scott H, Sollid LM, Valnes K: Production and secretion of immunoglobulins in the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Allergy; 1987 Nov;59(5 Pt 2):21-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Production and secretion of immunoglobulins in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Two decades ago it was shown that the major immunoglobulin (Ig) present in human secretions is a dimeric IgA covalently bound to an epithelial glycoprotein of about 80 kD, now called the secretory component (SC).
  • Pentameric IgM is likewise actively enriched in most exocrine fluids and is associated with SC, although not in a covalently stabilized complex.
  • Three findings explain the selective translocation of polymeric Ig (pIg) into exocrine fluids:.
  • Especially in selective IgA deficiency, SIgM may exert a similar protective function since its synthesis is markedly increased in the intestinal mucosa.
  • Leakage of IgG into exocrine fluids is enhanced by mucosal irritation.
  • This is seen especially in the respiratory tract where IgG is less easily subjected to proteolytic degradation than in the intestinal juice.
  • The same is true for IgE antibodies which may be carried into mucous membranes and secretions by mast cells and cause their degranulation with local histamine release.
  • Traces of IgD may likewise be found in the secretions but without obvious biologic significance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Celiac Disease / immunology. Colitis, Ulcerative / immunology. Crohn Disease / immunology. Food Hypersensitivity / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens / immunology. Humans. Immune Tolerance. Immunoglobulin Isotypes / immunology. Intestinal Mucosa / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Mast Cells / immunology. Secretory Component / immunology

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  • (PMID = 3318585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of allergy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Allergy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Immunoglobulin A, Secretory; 0 / Immunoglobulin Isotypes; 0 / Secretory Component
  • [Number-of-references] 204
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29. Tan S, Liang CR, Yeoh KG, So J, Hew CL, Chung MC: Gastrointestinal fluids proteomics. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Aug;1(8):820-33
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal fluids proteomics.
  • Seventy million people suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract annually in US, translating to US$85.5 billion in direct healthcare costs.
  • The debilitating effects of these gastrointestinal (GI) diseases can be circumvented with good biomarkers for early detection of these disorders, which will greatly increase the success of curative treatments.
  • GI fluids represent a potential reservoir of biomarkers for early diagnosis of various GI and systemic diseases since these fluids are the most proximal fluid bathing diseased cells.
  • They are anticipated to have proteomes that closely reflect the ensemble of proteins secreted from the respective GI tissues.
  • Most importantly, the disease markers present in GI fluids should be present in higher concentrations than in sera, thus offering greater sensitivity in their detection.
  • However, proteome analysis of GI fluids can be complex mainly due to the dynamic range of protein content and the numerous PTMs of proteins in each specialized GI compartment.
  • This review attempts to discuss the physiology of the various GI fluids, the special technical considerations required for proteome analysis of each fluid, as well as to summarize the current state of knowledge of biomarker discoveries and clinical utility of GI fluids such as salivary, gastric, pancreatic, and biliary secretions.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Molnar IG, Vandevoorde JP, Gitnick GL: CEA levels in fluids bathing gastrointestinal tumors. Gastroenterology; 1976 Apr;70(4):513-5
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  • [Title] CEA levels in fluids bathing gastrointestinal tumors.
  • A controlled prospective study was undertaken to determine if fluids which bathe malignancies may contain carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) earlier in the course of gastrointestinal cancer than does plasma of the same patient and may offer a better means for diagnosis.
  • The colonic mucus of 3 patients with ulcerative colitis, gastric secretions of 5 benign gastric ulcer patients, bile specimens from 11 normal control subjects and from 5 gallstone patients contained CEA at concentrations below 2.5 ng per ml.
  • Positive CEA titers were found in the fluids bathing tumors of all 23 patients with colonic carcinoma, 9 of 17 patients with gastric carcinoma, and all 6 patients with pancreatic carcinoma.
  • Among 46 patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, CEA was detected in significant concentrations in the plasma of 26 patients and in fluids bathing tumors of 38 patients.
  • These results indicate a significant association of adenocarcinoma of the colon with CEA-positive colonic mucus (P less than 0.01) and suggest the usefulness of assaying CEA in fluids bathing tumors for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile / immunology. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / immunology. Gastric Juice / immunology. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Mucus / immunology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology. Prospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 1254136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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31. Montgomery PC, Lemaître-Coelho IM, Vaerman JP: The induction and expression of IgA anti-DNP antibodies in rat bile and secretions. Scand J Immunol; 1981;13(6):587-95
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  • [Title] The induction and expression of IgA anti-DNP antibodies in rat bile and secretions.
  • Anti-DNP antibody responses in the IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes were measured in serum, secretions and bile.
  • Gastric intubation was most effective at eliciting IgA antibody responses in bile and secretions, whereas the other routes were more effective at inducing IgG responses in serum and bile.
  • IgM antibody responses were infrequent and were found in fluids most closely associated with the immunization route.
  • Isoelectric focusing studies of IgA antibodies appearing in secretions and bile revealed that the gastric route consistently elicited antibody spectrotypes with shared components.
  • After gastric stimulation, the appearance of IgA antibodies with identical spectral components in secretions and bile favours the concept that IgA precursor cells with identical clonotype potential migrate from the gastrointestinal area to secretory sites.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Fluids / immunology. Female. Immunization. Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis. Immunoglobulin M / biosynthesis. Isoelectric Focusing. Pregnancy. Pregnancy, Animal. Radioimmunoassay. Rats

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  • (PMID = 7313553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9475
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE-02623
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] NORWAY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dinitrophenols; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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32. Guo J, O'Mahony AM, Cheng WP, O'Driscoll CM: Amphiphilic polyallylamine based polymeric micelles for siRNA delivery to the gastrointestinal tract: in vitro investigations. Int J Pharm; 2013 Apr 15;447(1-2):150-7
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  • [Title] Amphiphilic polyallylamine based polymeric micelles for siRNA delivery to the gastrointestinal tract: in vitro investigations.
  • Targeting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents a promising strategy for local or systemic delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics.
  • The development of a nano-carrier for siRNA delivery via the GI tract would enable localised therapy for a range of gastrointestinal diseases.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of these amphiphilic PAA-based PM for siRNA delivery via the GI tract.
  • The PAA·siRNA complexes were stable in the presence of salt solutions and simulated gastric/intestinal fluids.
  • These results highlight the potential of these nano-sized PM for siRNA oral delivery via the GI tract for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Caco-2 Cells. Cell Survival / drug effects. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Gastrointestinal Tract. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Luciferases, Firefly / genetics. Micelles. Particle Size

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23467082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 30551-89-4 / polyallylamine; EC 1.13.12.7 / Luciferases, Firefly
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33. Chaurasia OP, Marcuard SP, Seidel ER: Insulin-like growth factor I in human gastrointestinal exocrine secretions. Regul Pept; 1994 Feb 24;50(2):113-9
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor I in human gastrointestinal exocrine secretions.
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the mediator of growth hormone dependent growth.
  • The peptide has been identified by radioimmunoassay in a number of human exocrine secretions of the gastrointestinal tract including (nM): saliva 0.9, gastric juice 3.5, jejunal chyme 24.6, pancreatic juice 3.6, and bile 0.9.
  • Radioligand blot analysis of samples of gastric juice, jejunal chyme and pancreatic juice demonstrated that these fluids contained no IGF binding proteins.
  • Thus, unlike IGF-I in serum, IGF-I secreted into the gastrointestinal lumen is not bound to insulin-like growth factor I binding proteins.
  • Since the growth factor is not protein bound, its concentration in the gut lumen may be high enough to exert biological activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile / metabolism. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Pancreatic Juice / metabolism. Saliva / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 8190912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-0115
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 34110
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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34. Dippold WG, Klingel R, Bernhard H, Dienes HP, Knuth A, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH: Secretory epithelial cell marker on gastrointestinal tumors and in human secretions defined by a monoclonal antibody. Cancer Res; 1987 Apr 15;47(8):2092-7
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  • [Title] Secretory epithelial cell marker on gastrointestinal tumors and in human secretions defined by a monoclonal antibody.
  • The antigen was identified biochemically as a polar neutral glycolipid and detected in human salivary, bronchial, pancreatic, and intestinal secretions by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but was not found in sera of healthy controls or patients with gastrointestinal and other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Body Fluids / immunology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Surface / analysis. Epithelium / immunology. Glycolipids / analysis. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology. Saliva / immunology

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  • (PMID = 3828998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Glycolipids
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35. Bukhave K, Gréen K, Rask-Madsen J: Comparison of radioimmunological determinations with gas chromatography mass spectrometry dosage. A study of PGE2 and PGF2alpha in gastrointestinal fluids. Biomed Mass Spectrom; 1983 Apr;10(4):265-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of radioimmunological determinations with gas chromatography mass spectrometry dosage. A study of PGE2 and PGF2alpha in gastrointestinal fluids.
  • The reliability of radioimmunoassays for determination of PGE2 and PGF2alpha in gastrointestinal fluids was checked by two gas chromatographic mass spectrometric methods.
  • Analyses were performed on samples of gastric juice from dogs and man (healthy volunteers), jejunal fluids from patients with celiac disease, mucous discharge from a villous adenoma of rectum, and bathing solutions from the Ussing chamber containing human jejunal mucosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastric Juice / analysis. Intestinal Secretions / analysis. Prostaglandins E / analysis. Prostaglandins F / analysis. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 6573927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-042X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical mass spectrometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prostaglandins E; 0 / Prostaglandins F; B7IN85G1HY / Dinoprost; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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36. Mao Y, Doyle MP, Chen J: Role of colanic acid exopolysaccharide in the survival of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Lett Appl Microbiol; 2006 Jun;42(6):642-7
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  • [Title] Role of colanic acid exopolysaccharide in the survival of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.
  • AIM: This study evaluated the production of colanic acid (CA) exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in relation to the pathogen's ability to survive under acidic conditions simulating the environment in the human gastrointestinal tract.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Escherichia coli O157:H7 W6-13 and its CA-deficient mutant M4020 were examined for their resistance to bile salts, and their ability to survive in simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin (pH 2.0) and simulated intestinal fluid containing pancreatin (pH 8.0).
  • The results indicated that the survivability of M4020, under conditions simulating the environment in the human gastrointestinal tract, reduced more drastically than the viability of W6-13.
  • CONCLUSION: The EPS CA may serve as a protective barrier to E. coli O157:H7 for its survival in the human gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Escherichia coli O157 / growth & development. Gastric Juice / microbiology. Intestinal Secretions / microbiology. Polysaccharides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16706906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-8254
  • [Journal-full-title] Letters in applied microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lett. Appl. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 9012-87-7 / colanic acid
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37. Yamagata T, Morishita M, Kavimandan NJ, Nakamura K, Fukuoka Y, Takayama K, Peppas NA: Characterization of insulin protection properties of complexation hydrogels in gastric and intestinal enzyme fluids. J Control Release; 2006 May 30;112(3):343-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of insulin protection properties of complexation hydrogels in gastric and intestinal enzyme fluids.
  • The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to oral bioavailability of insulin by poly(methacrylic acid grafted with poly(ethylene glycol)) (P(MAA-g-EG)) hydrogels using the gastric and intestinal fluids from rats.
  • In the intestinal fluid, P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogels significantly decreased the insulin degradation rate and calcium ion levels, while protein levels was not changed.
  • Moreover, the insulin degradation inhibitory effect was significantly correlated with Ca2+ deprivation ability of P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogels in the intestinal fluid, implying that the Ca2+ deprivation ability plays an important role in the inhibition of the intestinal enzyme activities.
  • Insulin-loaded P(MAA-g-EG) (ILPs) hydrogels showed a rapid and almost complete insulin release even in the presence of intestinal proteases.
  • These results suggested that the insulin protection ability of the hydrogels contributed to improve oral insulin absorption and that P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogels can be an excellent carrier for protecting insulin during their transit through the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastric Juice / enzymology. Hydrogels / metabolism. Insulin / secretion. Intestinal Secretions / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16631271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01-EB000246
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Insulin
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38. Makioka A, Kumagai M, Kobayashi S, Takeuchi T: Effect of artificial gastrointestinal fluids on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens. Parasitol Res; 2006 Apr;98(5):443-6
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  • [Title] Effect of artificial gastrointestinal fluids on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens.
  • An artificial intestinal fluid (AIF), containing 1% pancreatin, 1% sodium bicarbonate, and 5% ox bile, pH 8.0, in distilled water, had a significant toxic effect on cysts, where 1% pancreatin had neither an enhancing effect on excystation nor a toxic effect on cysts, whereas 5% ox bile had a toxic effect on cysts.
  • These results suggest that gastric fluid but not intestinal fluid at 37 degrees C contributes to enhancing excystation for Entamoeba infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Entamoeba / drug effects. Entamoeba / growth & development. Gastric Juice. Gastrointestinal Tract / parasitology. Intestinal Secretions

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  • (PMID = 16416121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0113
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasitology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasitol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Hayakawa T, Jin CX, Ko SB, Kitagawa M, Ishiguro H: Lactoferrin in gastrointestinal disease. Intern Med; 2009;48(15):1251-4
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  • [Title] Lactoferrin in gastrointestinal disease.
  • Lactoferrin, a major whey protein, is a red iron-binding protein present mainly in external secretions such as breast milk and in polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
  • The presence of lactoferrin in body fluids is proportional to the flux of neutrophils and its assessment can provide a reliable biomarker for inflammation.
  • In gastrointestinal diseases increased fecal lactoferrin is a sensitive and specific surrogate marker for inflammatory bowel diseases in patients with chronic diarrhea and pain, and ascites lactoferrin can also provide a promising and reliable biomarker for bacterial peritonitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19652425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / LTF protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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40. Horne CH, Armstrong SS, Thomson AW, Thompson WD: Detection of pregnancy associated alpha 2-glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG), an immunosuppressive agent, in IgA producing plasma cells and in body secretions. Clin Exp Immunol; 1983 Mar;51(3):631-8
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  • [Title] Detection of pregnancy associated alpha 2-glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG), an immunosuppressive agent, in IgA producing plasma cells and in body secretions.
  • Furthermore, we have observed increased numbers of alpha 2-PAG positive cells in sites recognized for their local IgA production e.g. lactating breast, salivary gland, respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosae.
  • In support of this cellular association with IgA, alpha 2-PAG was measured by enzyme immunoassay in colostrum, breast milk, saliva, jejunal secretions, bile and urine.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / analysis. Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis. Plasma Cells / analysis. Pregnancy Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bile / analysis. Colostrum / analysis. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Intestinal Secretions / analysis. Middle Aged. Milk, Human / analysis. Saliva / analysis

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  • [Cites] Lancet. 1966 Dec 3;2(7475):1224-6 [4163527.001]
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  • (PMID = 6342887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9104
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Pregnancy Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1536800
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41. Brown WR, Butterfield D, Savage D, Tada T: Clinical, microbiological, and immunological studies in patients with immunoglobulin deficiencies and gastrointestinal disorders. Gut; 1972 Jun;13(6):441-9
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  • [Title] Clinical, microbiological, and immunological studies in patients with immunoglobulin deficiencies and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Seven patients with gastrointestinal disorders and deficiencies of serum and secretory immunoglobulins were evaluated clinically, microbiologically, and immunologically.
  • Four of the five patients with generalized hypogammaglobulinaemia had intestinal infestation with Giardia lamblia; in three of the five, excessive numbers of anaerobic bacteria were cultured from small bowel fluids.
  • Despite much variability in relative severity of patients' respiratory and gastrointestinal tract symptoms, deficiencies of mucosal immunocytes and immunoglobulins in nasopharyngeal and gastrointestinal tract tissues and secretions were similar.
  • The study characterizes in greater detail than heretofore the gastrointestinal disorders associated with immunoglobulin deficiency states.
  • [MeSH-major] Agammaglobulinemia / complications. Gastrointestinal Diseases / complications. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Giardia / isolation & purification. Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests. Humans. Immunoglobulin A. Immunoglobulin E. Intestines / microbiology. Jejunum / pathology. Lectins / pharmacology. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharynx / pathology. Stomach / pathology. Thymidine / metabolism. Tritium

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  • (PMID = 4557306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Lectins; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1412194
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42. Baron JL, Li JL, McKerlie ML, Shabot JM, Coppenhaver DH: A new subtype of a natural viral inhibitor (CVI) that is stable in the gastrointestinal tract. Microb Pathog; 1986 Jun;1(3):241-7
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  • [Title] A new subtype of a natural viral inhibitor (CVI) that is stable in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • A virus inhibitor found in gastric secretions and in extracts from gastrointestinal tissues is described.
  • The inhibitor shares a number of characteristics with the recently described contact-blocking virus inhibitor (CVI), which is produced by unstimulated cells in culture, and occurs naturally in some body fluids.
  • The new inhibitor, which we have designated gastrointestinal-CVI (GI-CVI) is similar to the originally described CVI in its resistance to denaturation by acid and alkali, stability at 100 degrees C, and broad antiviral action.
  • GI-CVI can be distinguished from the previously described material by its resistance to proteolytic inactivation and enhanced heat stability, however.
  • This new virus inhibitor has been found in significant titers in gastrointestinal secretions and tissue extracts from three mammalian species.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / isolation & purification. Digestive System / immunology

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  • (PMID = 3508490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0882-4010
  • [Journal-full-title] Microbial pathogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microb. Pathog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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43. MOE AE: Electrolyte balance in gastrointestinal disease. Calif Med; 1955 Nov;83(5):339-42
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  • [Title] Electrolyte balance in gastrointestinal disease.
  • Even small losses of gastrointestinal secretions when combined with reduced intake of electrolytes may seriously disturb electrolyte balance.
  • Knowledge of the ionic composition of secretions lost is essential in planning therapy.
  • Since renal function is usually adequate in the milder gastrointestinal disturbances, electrolyte and fluid replacement should be started early, and can be guided by generally available laboratory tests, the carbon dioxide combining power and serum chloride levels, provided the predominate ionic loss is known and potassium deficiency remedied.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkalosis. Body Fluids. Diarrhea. Electrolytes. Gastrointestinal Diseases / complications. Hypokalemia. Intestine, Small. Potassium. Sodium. Water-Electrolyte Balance

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  • (PMID = 13260927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-1264
  • [Journal-full-title] California medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Calif Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5629:12845; NLM/ PMC1532601
  • [Keywords] NLM ; BODY FLUIDS (major topic) / GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES/complications (major topic)
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44. Lebenthal E, Clark B: Immunoglobulin concentrations in the duodenal fluids of infants and children. II. The effect of pancreozymin and secretin. Am J Gastroenterol; 1981 Jun;75(6):436-9
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  • [Title] Immunoglobulin concentrations in the duodenal fluids of infants and children. II. The effect of pancreozymin and secretin.
  • The subjects consisted of 45 infants and children without gastrointestinal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystokinin / pharmacology. Duodenum. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Secretin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 7270539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 1393-25-5 / Secretin; 9011-97-6 / Cholecystokinin
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45. HIV exposure through contact with body fluids. Prescrire Int; 2012 Apr;21(126):100-1, 103-5
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  • [Title] HIV exposure through contact with body fluids.
  • A variety of situations, either accidental or linked to high-risk behaviour, raise concerns about potential infection from contact with the blood or genital secretions of a person who may be HIV-infected.
  • The main adverse effects of antiretrovirals are gastrointestinal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Body Fluids / virology. HIV Infections / prevention & control


46. Douch PG, Harrison GB, Buchanan LL, Brunsdon RV: Relationship of histamine in tissues and antiparasitic substances in gastrointestinal mucus to the development of resistance to trichostrongyle infections in young sheep. Vet Parasitol; 1984 Nov;16(3-4):273-88
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  • [Title] Relationship of histamine in tissues and antiparasitic substances in gastrointestinal mucus to the development of resistance to trichostrongyle infections in young sheep.
  • The development of resistance to nematode infection and self-cure in a flock of young grazing sheep were examined in relation to changes in the levels of histamine in tissues and levels of antiparasitic substances in gastrointestinal mucus.
  • Histamine levels in blood and intestinal content fluids were similar in both groups of sheep and were highest during maximum challenge by larval nematodes.
  • Antiparasite activity of the intestinal mucus was significantly higher in sheep with low egg counts than those with high counts, between January and May, and was associated with significantly lower burdens of fourth stage larvae.
  • [MeSH-major] Histamine / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Mucus / immunology. Sheep Diseases / immunology. Trichostrongyloidea / immunology. Trichostrongyloidiasis / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 6542724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4017
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 820484N8I3 / Histamine
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47. Thomas S, Brightman F, Gill H, Lee S, Pufong B: Simulation modelling of human intestinal absorption using Caco-2 permeability and kinetic solubility data for early drug discovery. J Pharm Sci; 2008 Oct;97(10):4557-74
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  • [Title] Simulation modelling of human intestinal absorption using Caco-2 permeability and kinetic solubility data for early drug discovery.
  • Measurement of permeation across a monolayer of the human adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, is a popular surrogate for a compound's permeation across the human intestinal epithelium.
  • Taken alone, however, Caco-2 permeability has certain limitations in the prediction of the extent of absorption of an orally-administered compound, because it does not take into account confounding factors such as solubility and dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract fluids.
  • A simulation model is described that uses Caco-2 permeability measured in the apical to basolateral direction plus kinetic solubility in buffered solution (both measured at pH 7.4) to predict human intestinal absorption.
  • The model features novel treatment of time-varying fluid volume in the GI tract, as a consequence of secretions into, and absorption of fluid from, the upper part of the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-minor] Caco-2 Cells. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Permeability. Solubility

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association
  • (PMID = 18300298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6017
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Yuan H, Chen CY, Chai GH, Du YZ, Hu FQ: Improved transport and absorption through gastrointestinal tract by PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles. Mol Pharm; 2013 May 6;10(5):1865-73
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  • [Title] Improved transport and absorption through gastrointestinal tract by PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticle (pSLN) as mucus penetrating particles (MPP) for oral delivery across gastrointestinal mucus.
  • Surface properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and transport across Caco-2/HT29 coculture cell monolayers, intestinal absorption, and pharmacokinetics of pSLN were studied compared with that of SLN.
  • In addition to increasing permeation ability, the stability of the nanoparticles in simulated intestinal fluids was also increased by the PEGylation.
  • Moreover, in vitro everted gut sac technique and the ligated intestinal loops model in vivo also demonstrated that pSLN can rapidly penetrate mucus secretions, whereas the SLN were strongly trapped by highly viscoelastic mucus barriers.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Absorption. Nanoparticles / administration & dosage. Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Biological Availability. Caco-2 Cells. Coculture Techniques. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers / administration & dosage. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Endocytosis / drug effects. HT29 Cells. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Lipids / chemistry. Male. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 23495754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Lipids; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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49. Qiao X, Huang W, Bian Y: Effective removal of cadmium ions from a simulated gastrointestinal fluid by Lentinus edodes. Int J Environ Res Public Health; 2014 Dec;11(12):12486-98
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  • [Title] Effective removal of cadmium ions from a simulated gastrointestinal fluid by Lentinus edodes.
  • Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadmium Poisoning / diet therapy. Chelating Agents / chemistry. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Shiitake Mushrooms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 25469921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-4601
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of environmental research and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Environ Res Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chelating Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4276626
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50. Nadella SR, Bucking C, Grosell M, Wood CM: Gastrointestinal assimilation of Cu during digestion of a single meal in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol; 2006 Aug;143(4):394-401
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal assimilation of Cu during digestion of a single meal in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
  • Gastrointestinal processing and assimilation of Cu in vivo was investigated by sequential chyme analysis over a 72 h period following ingestion of a single satiation meal (3% body weight) of commercial trout food (Cu content=0.42 micromol g(-1)) by adult rainbow trout.
  • The anterior intestine was a site of large net Cu addition to the chyme, probably due to large net additions of Cu-containing fluids in the form of bile and other secretions in this segment.
  • The results provide valuable information about sites of Cu absorption and realistic concentrations of Cu in chyme fluid for future in vitro mechanistic studies on Cu transport in the trout gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Copper / metabolism. Digestion / physiology. Intestinal Absorption / physiology. Oncorhynchus mykiss / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gastrointestinal Contents / chemistry. Stomach / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16765095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0456
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 789U1901C5 / Copper
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51. Gröning R, Danco I, Müller RS: Development of sensor elements to control drug release from capsular drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm; 2007 Aug 1;340(1-2):61-4
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  • The objective of this study was to develop a capsular drug delivery system, which releases the drug when a sensor element is activated by gastrointestinal fluids.
  • After disintegration or dissolution of the control membrane the gastrointestinal fluid switches on an electric circuit.
  • In vitro experiments with pH-sensitive polymethacrylic sensor membranes (Eudragit S 100) show that prednisolone dihydrogenphosphate is released within a few minutes when the capsule is transferred from gastric juice to artificial intestinal fluid of pH 6.8.
  • The developed systems are intended to be used as pump systems to deliver drugs into specific areas of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • [MeSH-minor] Capsules. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Drug Compounding. Equipment Design. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Kinetics. Solubility. Tablets, Enteric-Coated

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  • (PMID = 17462841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsules; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Polymethacrylic Acids; 0 / Tablets, Enteric-Coated; 25086-15-1 / methylmethacrylate-methacrylic acid copolymer; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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52. Go VL: Carcinoembryonic antigen: clinical application. Cancer; 1976 Jan;37(1 suppl):562-6
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  • In cancer:. (1) CEA level may be increased in primary cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as well as in non-GI neoplasia;.
  • In biological fluid: The CEA or CEA-like activity can be measured in gastrointestinal secretions.
  • Quantitative studies of CEA levels in such fluids may yield more information than is obtainable from studies of serum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Fluids / analysis. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System / secretion. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / immunology. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 1247982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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53. Gross G, Tardio J, Kuhlmann O: Solubility and stability of dalcetrapib in vehicles and biological media. Int J Pharm; 2012 Nov 1;437(1-2):103-9
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  • This was also reflected in the solubility seen in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, with almost no solubility in simulated gastric fluid, but reasonable solubilisation in simulated intestinal fluids containing lecithin and bile salt.
  • Additionally, the stability of dalcetrapib was determined in simulated GI fluids with and without pancreatic lipase.
  • In biological fluids, dissolved dalcetrapib appeared to behave similarly being rapidly hydrolysed in human intestinal fluids with a half-life below 20s with no degradation observed in human gastric fluids at low pH.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Acids and Salts / chemistry. Drug Stability. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Lecithins / chemistry. Lipase / chemistry. Saliva / chemistry. Solubility. Solvents / chemistry. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22884829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Lecithins; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 3D050LIQ3H / dalcetrapib; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase; EC 3.1.1.3 / PNLIP protein, human
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54. Mestecky J, Fultz PN: Mucosal immune system of the human genital tract. J Infect Dis; 1999 May;179 Suppl 3:S470-4
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  • In contrast to the pronounced dominance of secretory IgA over other immunoglobulin isotypes in human saliva, tears, milk, and gastrointestinal fluids, secretions of both female and male genital tracts contain more IgG than secretory IgA.

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  • (PMID = 10099122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-28147; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-34970; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-35163
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Antibodies; 0 / Immunoglobulin A, Secretory; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / secretory IgM
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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55. Tobi M, Steinberg W, Henry J, Nochomovitz L: Cancer associated antigen CA19-9 in colonic effluent of patients with neoplasia of the colon and inflammatory bowel disease. Cancer Lett; 1991 Oct;60(1):9-13
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  • CA19-9 may originate from the upper gastrointestinal tract since large amounts are present in pancreatico-biliary secretions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Fluids / immunology. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 1913630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
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56. Weinberg ED: Antibiotic properties and applications of lactoferrin. Curr Pharm Des; 2007;13(8):801-11
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  • Lactoferrin (Lf), a mammalian iron scavenging defense protein, constitutively is present in exocrine secretions that consistently are exposed to microbial flora: milk, tears, tubotympanum and nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervicovaginal mucus, and seminal fluid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Fluids / metabolism. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17430182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
  • [Number-of-references] 161
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57. Huang YB, Tsai MJ, Wu PC, Tsai YH, Wu YH, Fang JY: Elastic liposomes as carriers for oral delivery and the brain distribution of (+)-catechin. J Drug Target; 2011 Sep;19(8):709-18
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  • The size, zeta potential, and stability of the liposomes in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media were characterized.
  • Liposomes entrapping (+)-catechin remained stable in the presence of GI fluids, especially in simulated intestinal fluid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Biological Availability. Drug Stability. Drug Storage. Elasticity. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Liposomes. Male. Models, Biological. Particle Size. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Solubility. Surface Properties. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 21303222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2330
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drug targeting
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drug Target
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin
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58. Ando H, Mochiki E, Ohno T, Yanai M, Toyomasu Y, Ogata K, Tabe Y, Aihara R, Nakabayashi T, Asao T, Kuwano H: Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs. World J Gastroenterol; 2014 Nov 14;20(42):15691-702
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  • [Title] Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.
  • Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h.
  • To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs.
  • The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h.
  • Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Cisplatin / toxicity. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Intestine, Small / drug effects. Stomach / drug effects. Vomiting / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consciousness. Dogs. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Male. Serotonergic Neurons / drug effects. Serotonergic Neurons / metabolism. Serotonin / administration & dosage. Serotonin / blood. Time Factors. Vagus Nerve / drug effects. Vagus Nerve / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 25400453.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4229534
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 5-hydroxytryptamine / Abnormal motor activity / Cisplatin / Dog / Emesis
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59. Debongnie JC, Delmee M, Mainguet P: Campylobacter pylori in gastric, duodenal and jejunal juices and mucosae of patients with duodenal ulcer. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 1989 Jan-Apr;52(1-2):3-8
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  • The presence of Campylobacter pylori was investigated in biopsies and fluids obtained in the antrum, duodenal bulb and jejunum during jejunoscopy in 20 patients with an active duodenal ulcer. C. pylori was present in cultured antral biopsies in all patients, in the bulb of most patients (16/20), but was unusual in jejunal mucosa (2/20).
  • [MeSH-major] Campylobacter / isolation & purification. Duodenal Ulcer / microbiology. Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology. Intestinal Secretions / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 2618533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5644
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] BELGIUM
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60. Bergström CA, Holm R, Jørgensen SA, Andersson SB, Artursson P, Beato S, Borde A, Box K, Brewster M, Dressman J, Feng KI, Halbert G, Kostewicz E, McAllister M, Muenster U, Thinnes J, Taylor R, Mullertz A: Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption: current status and unmet needs. Eur J Pharm Sci; 2014 Jun 16;57:173-99
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  • An overview of the composition of human, animal and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids is provided and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopharmaceutics / methods. Gastrointestinal Tract / physiology. Intestinal Absorption. Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage. Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism. Pharmacokinetics. Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Computer Simulation. Excipients / chemistry. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Models, Biological. Solubility

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24215735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excipients; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Absorption / Biorelevant media / Intestinal fluid / Pharmaceutical profiling / Physicochemical properties / Preformulation
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61. Rocker JM, DiPalma JA, Pannell LK: Rectal effluent as a research tool. Dig Dis Sci; 2015 Jan;60(1):24-31
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  • Studies of localized secretions are generally superior to those of blood because they contain higher concentrations of molecules specific to the organ of interest.
  • A common method used to analyze localized secretions is lavage.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) lavage is easily and noninvasively performed by the administration of gut lavage solutions such as those routinely given to patients prior to colonoscopy, with GI lavage fluid being the copious, watery rectal effluent subsequently induced.
  • With millions of routine colonoscopies performed per year, GI lavage fluid is a rich and largely untapped resource for basic and clinical research.
  • It is often referred to as gut lavage, colon lavage, GI lavage, or whole gut lavage fluid, which makes it challenging to locate previous studies in the literature and there are currently no comprehensive reviews of its use as a research tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids. Intestinal Mucosa / secretion. Therapeutic Irrigation

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  • (PMID = 25179492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins
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62. Vitacolonna M, Mularczyk M, Herrle F, Schulze TJ, Haupt H, Oechsner M, Pilz LR, Hohenberger P, Rössner ED: Effect on the tensile strength of human acellular dermis (Epiflex®) of in-vitro incubation simulating an open abdomen setting. BMC Surg; 2014;14:7
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  • This paper describes an investigation of the effects of fluids simulating an open abdomen environment on the biomechanical properties of Epiflex® a cell-free human dermis transplant.
  • METHODS: hAD was incubated in Ringers solution, blood, urine, upper gastrointestinal (upper GI) secretion and a peritonitis-like bacterial solution in-vitro for 3 weeks.
  • RESULTS: hAD incubated in all five of the five fluids showed a decrease in mean breaking strength at day 21 when compared to day 0.
  • However, upper GI secretion was the only incubation fluid that significantly reduced the mechanical strength of Epiflex after 21 days of incubation when compared to incubation in Ringer's solution.
  • CONCLUSION: hAD may be a suitable material for closure of the open abdomen in the absence of upper GI leakage and pancreatic fistulae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Biomechanical Phenomena. Body Fluids. Gastric Juice. Humans. Intestinal Secretions. Isotonic Solutions. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Tissue Culture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 24468201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2482
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isotonic Solutions; 8026-10-6 / Ringer's solution
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3916513
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63. Ripamonti C, Mercadante S, Groff L, Zecca E, De Conno F, Casuccio A: Role of octreotide, scopolamine butylbromide, and hydration in symptom control of patients with inoperable bowel obstruction and nasogastric tubes: a prospective randomized trial. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2000 Jan;19(1):23-34
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  • Scopolamine butylbromide (SB) and octreotide (OCT) have been successfully used with the aim of reducing gastrointestinal (GI) secretions to avoid placement of a nasogastric tube (NGT); however, there have been no comparative studies concerning the efficacy of these drugs.
  • Moreover, daily information was collected regarding the quantity of GI secretions through the NGT, the oral intake of fluids, the quantity of parenteral hydration, and the analgesic therapy used.
  • OCT significantly reduced the amount of GI secretions at T2 (P = 0.016) and T3 (P = 0.020).
  • Compared to the home care patients, the hospitalized patients received significantly more parenteral hydration (P = 0.0005) and drank more fluids (P = 0.025).
  • When a more rapid reduction in GI secretions is desired, OCT should be considered as the first choice drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluid Therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Intestinal Obstruction / therapy. Muscarinic Antagonists / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Scopolamine Hydrobromide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Intubation, Gastrointestinal. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Water

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  • (PMID = 10687323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3924
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Muscarinic Antagonists; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451IFR0GXB / Scopolamine Hydrobromide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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64. MacGregor RR, Gibson GA, Bland JA: Imipenem pharmacokinetics and body fluid concentrations in patients receiving high-dose treatment for serious infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 1986 Feb;29(2):188-92
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  • Serum, urine, tissue, and body fluids were collected from 40 adult patients who were receiving imipenem/cilastatin treatment for serious infections.
  • Of 20 specimens of various gastrointestinal secretions, 13 had imipenem concentrations that were low, but above the MIC for most resident flora.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone and Bones / analysis. Cilastatin. Cyclopropanes / metabolism. Cyclopropanes / therapeutic use. Exudates and Transudates / analysis. Female. Gastric Juice / analysis. Humans. Imipenem. Intestinal Secretions / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Sputum / analysis. Suppuration / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 3459389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclopropanes; 0 / Thienamycins; 141A6AMN38 / Cilastatin; 71OTZ9ZE0A / Imipenem
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC176375
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65. Hamza Yel-S, Aburahma MH: Design and in vitro evaluation of novel sustained- release matrix tablets for lornoxicam based on the combination of hydrophilic matrix formers and basic pH-modifiers. Pharm Dev Technol; 2010 Mar-Apr;15(2):139-53
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  • However, due to its weak acidic nature, its release from SR delivery systems is limited to the lower gastrointestinal tract which consequently leads to a delayed onset of its analgesic action.
  • Release studies, performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids used in sequence to mimic the GI transit, demonstrate the possibility of sustaining lornoxicam release by combining hydrophilic matrix formers and basic pH-Modifiers to prepare tablets that meet the reported sustained-release specifications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Stability. Drug Storage. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Half-Life. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hypromellose Derivatives. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Magnesium Oxide / chemistry. Methylcellulose / analogs & derivatives. Methylcellulose / chemistry. Sodium Bicarbonate / chemistry. Tablets

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  • (PMID = 19895367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical development and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm Dev Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Tablets; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; 3A3U0GI71G / Magnesium Oxide; 3NXW29V3WO / Hypromellose Derivatives; 8MDF5V39QO / Sodium Bicarbonate; 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose; ER09126G7A / lornoxicam
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66. Warren CD, Prange T, Campbell NB, Gerard MP, Martin LG, Jacob ME, Smith GW, Papich MG, Foster DM: Implantation of an ultrafiltration device in the ileum and spiral colon of steers to continuously collect intestinal fluid. Res Vet Sci; 2014 Dec;97(3):611-5
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  • [Title] Implantation of an ultrafiltration device in the ileum and spiral colon of steers to continuously collect intestinal fluid.
  • Collection of fluid from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly necessary for research projects, but presents challenges including intestinal motility and potential for leakage of intestinal contents.
  • In this study, ultrafiltration collection devices were surgically implanted in the ileum and spiral colon of 12 steers for repeated collection of intestinal fluid over 48 hours.
  • Use of ultrafiltration probes is a novel, consistent and humane method to repeatedly sample the gastrointestinal contents.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids. Colon / surgery. Ileum / surgery. Intestinal Secretions. Specimen Handling / veterinary. Ultrafiltration / instrumentation

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 25468800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bovine / Gastrointestinal fluid / Surgery / Ultrafiltration
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67. Wang YJ, Assaad E, Ispas-Szabo P, Mateescu MA, Zhu XX: NMR imaging of chitosan and carboxymethyl starch tablets: swelling and hydration of the polyelectrolyte complex. Int J Pharm; 2011 Oct 31;419(1-2):215-21
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  • We studied the effect of pH and ionic strength on the swelling of the tablets and on the diffusion of fluid into the tablets in water and simulated physiological fluids.
  • The pH value of the fluids exerts a more significant effect than their ionic strengths on the swelling of the tablets.
  • A sustained release of less soluble drugs such as aspirin in gastrointestinal fluids can be provided by the complex, due to the ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding between the drug and the biopolymer complex.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amylose / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Hydrogen Bonding. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Osmolar Concentration. Solubility. Tablets. Water / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21864660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Tablets; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9005-25-8 / Starch; 9005-82-7 / Amylose; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; 9057-06-1 / carboxymethyl starch; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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68. Thomas CJ, Hoet AE, Sreevatsan S, Wittum TE, Briggs RE, Duff GC, Saif LJ: Transmission of bovine coronavirus and serologic responses in feedlot calves under field conditions. Am J Vet Res; 2006 Aug;67(8):1412-20
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  • RESULTS: NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces.
  • In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces.
  • Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces.
  • Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Body Fluids / virology. Cattle. Feces / virology. Virus Shedding

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  • (PMID = 16881855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI062763-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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69. Puoci F, Cirillo G, Curcio M, Iemma F, Parisi OI, Castiglione M, Picci N: Molecularly imprinted polymers for alpha-tocopherol delivery. Drug Deliv; 2008 May;15(4):253-8
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  • This paper focuses on alpha -tocopherol and on the possibility of employing molecularly imprinted polymers as a controlled release device for alpha-tocopherol in gastrointestinal simulating fluids.
  • Imprinted polymers bound much more alpha-tocopherol and showed a controlled/sustained drug release capacity in gastrointestinal simulating fluids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Methacrylates / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18446571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0464
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Polymers; 1CS02G8656 / methacrylic acid; 7BK5G69305 / ethylene dimethacrylate; H4N855PNZ1 / alpha-Tocopherol
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70. Brouwers J, Tack J, Augustijns P: Parallel monitoring of plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations in man after oral administration of fosamprenavir in the fasted and fed state. Pharm Res; 2007 Oct;24(10):1862-9
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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of linking the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug with its gastrointestinal behavior by simultaneously monitoring plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations.
  • Gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated in function of time and characterized with respect to the concentration of (fos)amprenavir, inorganic phosphate and pH.
  • CONCLUSION: For the first time, the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug was monitored in parallel with its gastrointestinal concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbamates / pharmacokinetics. Duodenum / metabolism. Food-Drug Interactions. Gastric Juice / metabolism. HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Intestinal Absorption. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Organophosphates / pharmacokinetics. Sulfonamides / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 17443397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbamates; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Organophosphates; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Tablets; 5S0W860XNR / amprenavir; WOU1621EEG / fosamprenavir
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71. Freier S, Lebenthal E, Freier M, Shah PC, Park BH, Lee PC: IgE and IgD antibodies to cow milk and soy protein in duodenal fluid: effects of pancreozymin and secretin. Immunology; 1983 May;49(1):69-75
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  • Thirteen children with various intestinal diseases and thirteen normal adult volunteers were examined.
  • In resting duodenal fluids, 8/13 of the children had IgE and 5/13 had IgD, while only 1/13 of the adults showed detectable IgE and IgD.
  • After pancreozymin, 4/6 of the children and 4/8 of the adults showed detectable IgE and IgD in their duodenal fluids.
  • After secretin, the duodenal fluids from 1/8 of the children and 2/8 of the adults had detectable IgE, while 6/13 children and 1/10 of the adults had IgD.
  • In infants and children with gastrointestinal disease, the incidence of IgE and IgD antibodies specific for milk and soy proteins is higher in basal and pancreozymin-stimulated duodenal fluid when compared with control adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenum / immunology. Immunoglobulin D / analysis. Immunoglobulin E / analysis. Intestinal Secretions / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Milk Proteins / immunology. Plant Lectins. Soybean Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Animals. Caseins / immunology. Cattle. Child. Child, Preschool. Cholecystokinin / pharmacology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gastrointestinal Diseases / immunology. Humans. Infant. Secretin / pharmacology

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  • [Cites] Am J Dig Dis. 1975 May;20(5):454-9 [805530.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Immunol. 1972 Jul;11(3):415-25 [4625398.001]
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  • (PMID = 6840809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-02417; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE-005505
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caseins; 0 / Immunoglobulin D; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Milk Proteins; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / Soybean Proteins; 0 / soybean lectin; 1393-25-5 / Secretin; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E; 9011-97-6 / Cholecystokinin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1454106
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72. Coakley RD, Boucher RC: Regulation and functional significance of airway surface liquid pH. JOP; 2001 Jul;2(4 Suppl):294-300
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  • In gastrointestinal tissues, cumulative evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggests a role for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in apical epithelial bicarbonate conductance.
  • Here we evaluate the evidence in support of a lumenal acidification hypothesis in the CF lung, summarize current knowledge of pH regulation in the normal airway and illustrate how hyper-acidified airway secretions could contribute to the pathogenesis of CF lung disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / physiology. Respiratory Mucosa / physiology. Trachea / physiology

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  • (PMID = 11875275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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73. Matkowskyj KA, Danilkovich A, Marrero J, Savkovic SD, Hecht G, Benya RV: Galanin-1 receptor up-regulation mediates the excess colonic fluid production caused by infection with enteric pathogens. Nat Med; 2000 Sep;6(9):1048-51
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  • Galanin is widely distributed in enteric nerve terminals lining the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids / secretion. Colon / metabolism. Enterobacteriaceae / pathogenicity. Enterobacteriaceae Infections / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 10973327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-8956
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-50694; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-54777
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Galanin; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide
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74. Metheny NA, Stewart BJ, Smith L, Yan H, Diebold M, Clouse RE: pH and concentrations of pepsin and trypsin in feeding tube aspirates as predictors of tube placement. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr; 1997 Sep-Oct;21(5):279-85
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  • Also tested were aspirates from two feeding tubes inadvertently positioned into the lung (one in the pleural space and one in the tracheobronchial tree) and 146 samples of tracheobronchial and pleural fluids collected by other methods.
  • In contrast, intestinal fluid had a mean high pH (7.40), a high mean trypsin concentration (143.0 micrograms/mL), and a low mean pepsin concentration (24.2 micrograms/mL).
  • Using a logistic regression equation with all three variables to differentiate between respiratory and gastrointestinal placement, it was possible to correctly classify 100% of the respiratory cases and 93.4% of the gastrointestinal cases.
  • Another equation used to differentiate between gastric and intestinal sites was able to classify correctly 91.2% of the gastric cases and 91.5% of the intestinal cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Enteral Nutrition / methods. Gastric Juice / enzymology. Intestinal Secretions / enzymology. Intubation, Gastrointestinal / instrumentation. Intubation, Intratracheal / instrumentation. Trachea / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 9323690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-6071
  • [Journal-full-title] JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINR NIH HHS / NR / R01 NRO-1669
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin; EC 3.4.23.1 / Pepsin A
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75. Ghazal HS, Dyas AM, Ford JL, Hutcheon GA: In vitro evaluation of the dissolution behaviour of itraconazole in bio-relevant media. Int J Pharm; 2009 Jan 21;366(1-2):117-23
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  • Drugs in the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to a medium of partially digested food, comprising mixtures of fat, protein and carbohydrate.
  • Media containing milk with different fat contents, protein (albumin, casein, gluten and gelatin), carbohydrates (glucose, lactose and starch) and amino acids (lysine, glycine, alanine and aspartic acid) to mimic a digested meal and bile components (sodium taurocholate and lecithin) to represent a key endogenous digestive material were investigated.
  • The greatest increase in dissolution was observed with the addition of milk and albumin although an increase was also seen with other proteins, amino acids and simulated gastrointestinal fluids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acids / metabolism. Animals. Bile / chemistry. Biological Availability. Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism. Dietary Fats / metabolism. Dietary Proteins / metabolism. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Milk / metabolism. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 18832020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Dietary Proteins; 304NUG5GF4 / Itraconazole
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76. Takada K, Ushirogawa Y: Effect of pH, dietary proteins and trypsin inhibitors on the hydrolytic rate of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) by rat digestive enzymes. J Pharmacobiodyn; 1991 Jul;14(7):363-70
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  • The bile obtained by cannulation into the rat common bile duct and the eluates obtained by infusing distilled water into the gastrointestinal tract were used as sources of digestive enzymes.
  • With an experiment using the digestive enzyme fluids obtained after centrifugation of bile by ultra-filters with a molecular weight (Mr) cut off of 30000, 10000 and 5000, the proteolytic activity to G-CSF decreased as the cut off Mr decreased.
  • The hydrolytic rate of G-CSF was dependent on the pH of the enzyme fluid, and the intestinal fluid.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile / enzymology. Dietary Proteins / pharmacology. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Intestinal Secretions / enzymology. Trypsin Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 1724987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-846X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmacobio-dynamics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacobio-dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Trypsin Inhibitors; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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77. Marcoullis G, Gueant JL, Nicolas JP: Radioimmunoassay for assessing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, based on the differential enzymatic degradation of cobalamin-binding proteins. Clin Chem; 1986 Mar;32(3):453-60
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  • Accordingly, we used these two proteins as substrates in an in vitro enzymatic assay to assess pancreatic function by incubating basal jejunal fluids with a mixture of intrinsic factor and cyano[57Co]cobalamin coupled to R-type protein and then using immunoprecipitation to determine the distribution of isotopically labeled cobalamin bound to the two proteins.
  • With normal jejunal fluids, 91.2 (SD 6.1)% and 4.5 (SD 5.5)% of cyano[57Co]cobalamin was precipitated with antisera to intrinsic factor and anti-R protein, respectively.
  • In the patients' jejunal fluids, the cyano[57Co]cobalamin precipitated with the respective antisera was 5.3 (SD 10.0)% and 96 (SD 6.2)%.
  • In patients with other gastrointestinal problems, the sequestration of cobalamin was indistinguishable from that observed with the normal fluids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromatography, Gel. Humans. Ileum / metabolism. Intestinal Absorption. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Intrinsic Factor / analysis. Intrinsic Factor / metabolism. Jejunum / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Vitamin B 12 / analysis. Vitamin B 12 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 3512129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcobalamins; 9008-12-2 / Intrinsic Factor; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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78. McClelland DB, van Furth R: In vitro synthesis of lysozyme by human and mouse tissues and leucocytes. Immunology; 1975 Jun;28(6):1099-114
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  • Previous studies have shown that lysozyme can be detected in many body fluids, in extracts of tissues, and also in granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages.
  • In studies in humans and mice, lysozyme synthesis has been demonstrated in the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and in lymphoid organs.
  • Local synthesis of the mucous membranes contributes lysozyme to secretions.

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  • (PMID = 1093971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1445906
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79. Cheon EP, Hong JH, Han HK: Enhanced cellular uptake of Ara-C via a peptidomimetic prodrug, L-valyl-ara-C in Caco-2 cells. J Pharm Pharmacol; 2006 Jul;58(7):927-32
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  • This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal stability and the cellular uptake characteristics of L-valyl-ara-C, a peptidomimetic prodrug of ara-C (cytarabine).
  • After the synthesis of L-valyl-ara-C via the incorporation of L-valine into the N4-amino group of the cytosine ring in araC, the gastrointestinal stability of L-valyl-ara-C was examined using artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal fluids.
  • The disappearance half-life of L-valyl-ara-C was 2.2 h in artificial gastric juice, while the degradation of L-valyl-ara-C was negligible in artificial intestinal fluid and also in the supernatant above the Caco-2 cell monolayer during the 2-h incubation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Transport. Caco-2 Cells. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Drug Stability. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Half-Life. Humans. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Intestines / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16805952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / L-valyl-ara-C; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Prodrugs; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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80. Maile CW, Crass JR, Frick MP, Feinberg SB, Goldberg ME, Sutherland DE: CT of pancreas transplantation. Invest Radiol; 1985 Sep;20(6):609-12
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  • Visualization of the transplanted pancreas was variable and was strongly influenced by adequacy of gastrointestinal opacification with contrast material.
  • In four cases, linear high-density material was present within the graft, which, depending upon the surgical technique for handling exocrine secretions, represented either pancreaticojejunal stents or silicone within the pancreatic duct.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / radiography. Body Fluids. Drainage. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Hematoma / radiography. Humans. Pancreas / radiography. Pancreatic Diseases / radiography. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / radiography. Postoperative Complications / radiography. Punctures. Retrospective Studies


81. Ellickson KM, Schopfer CJ, Lioy PJ: The bioaccessibility of low level radionuclides from two Savannah river site soils. Health Phys; 2002 Oct;83(4):476-84
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  • Since oral bioavailability of inorganics is generally less than 100% and partially dissolution-limited, human gastrointestinal dissolution models that measure bioaccessibility instead of the total extractable mass should be used to develop radionuclide source terms.
  • A step that included the addition of organic acids to the gastrointestinal fluids did not considerably affect the bioaccessibility of 90Sr and 137Cs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / analysis. Cesium Radioisotopes / analysis. Gastric Juice / radiation effects. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / radiation effects. Radiometry. Saliva / radiation effects. Scintillation Counting. South Carolina. Spectrometry, Gamma. Strontium Radioisotopes / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12240722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Health physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cesium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Soil; 0 / Soil Pollutants, Radioactive; 0 / Strontium Radioisotopes; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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82. Santander-Ortega MJ, Bastos-González D, Ortega-Vinuesa JL, Alonso MJ: Insulin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for oral administration: an in vitro physico-chemical characterization. J Biomed Nanotechnol; 2009 Feb;5(1):45-53
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  • The work has been divided into two parts. (a) Firstly, the stability of the unloaded nanoparticles in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids was studied.
  • The obtained results show that those carriers formed with encapsulated insulin in PLGA-Pluronic F68 particles are capable, at least in vitro, to overcome the gastrointestinal barrier.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Carriers / chemistry. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Insulin / administration & dosage. Insulin / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry. Lactic Acid / chemistry. Nanoparticles / chemistry. Polyglycolic Acid / chemistry. Titanium / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Biomimetic Materials / chemistry. Gastrointestinal Contents / chemistry. Humans. Materials Testing. Particle Size

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  • (PMID = 20055105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-7033
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Nanotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Insulin; 0 / polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer; 15FIX9V2JP / titanium dioxide; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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83. Aburahma MH, Hamza Yel-S: Novel sustained-release fast-disintegrating multi-unit compressed tablets of lornoxicam containing Eudragit RS coated chitosan-alginate beads. Pharm Dev Technol; 2011 Aug;16(4):316-30
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  • Release studies, performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids used in sequence to mimic the gastrointestinal transit, illustrate that the FDMUTs containing 8?mg lornoxicam equally distributed between the sustained-release beads and the fast-release component, showed the desired release profile.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alginates / administration & dosage. Chitosan / administration & dosage. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Compounding / methods. Drug Stability. Excipients / administration & dosage. Excipients / chemistry. Gastric Juice / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Transit. Glucuronic Acid / administration & dosage. Hexuronic Acids / administration & dosage. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility. Tablets

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  • (PMID = 20307250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical development and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm Dev Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Tablets; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; 33434-24-1 / Eudragit RS; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; ER09126G7A / lornoxicam
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84. Debruyne D: Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in superficial and systemic mycoses. Clin Pharmacokinet; 1997 Jul;33(1):52-77
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  • Fluconazole is found in body fluids such as vaginal secretions, breast milk, saliva, sputum and cerebrospinal fluid at concentrations comparable with those determined in blood after single or multiple doses.
  • Hypochlorhydria does not affect the absorption of fluconazole, neither does food intake, race (Japanese or Caucasian) or gastrointestinal resection.

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  • (PMID = 9250423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0312-5963
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pharmacokinetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pharmacokinet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NEW ZEALAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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85. Cederqvist LL, Ewool LC, Bonsnes RW, Litwin SD: Detectability and pattern of immunoglobulins in normal amniotic fluid throughout gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 1978 Jan 15;130(2):220-4
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  • In 161 tested samples, IgA, IgA, IgA2, and IgG were measurable in all cases; IgM was measurable in 99.4 per cent and IgD, in 90.6 per cent of the fluids.
  • The inverse data for IgA as compared to other Ig classes suggest that amniotic fluid IgA may be partially derived from IgA in fetal gastrointestinal and pulmonary secretions.

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  • (PMID = 619662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin D; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Immunoglobulins
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86. Bryan RT: Microsporidiosis as an AIDS-related opportunistic infection. Clin Infect Dis; 1995 Aug;21 Suppl 1:S62-5
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  • The clinical manifestations of AIDS-related microsporidiosis range from mild or asymptomatic infections to debilitating illness involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, or urogenital tracts or the eyes.
  • The isolation of infective microsporidial spores from urine and respiratory secretions and the presence of spores in stool and duodenal aspirates suggest that person-to-person transmission may occur.
  • The presence of infective spores in bodily fluids, however, suggests that precautions when handling body fluids in clinical settings and personal hygiene measures such as hand washing may help to prevent primary infections.

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  • (PMID = 8547514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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87. Nedrud JG, Liang XP, Hague N, Lamm ME: Combined oral/nasal immunization protects mice from Sendai virus infection. J Immunol; 1987 Nov 15;139(10):3484-92
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  • Based on the concept of a common mucosal immune system wherein mucosal associated lymphocytes traffic among the various mucous membranes, the murine gastrointestinal tract was immunized with Sendai virus antigens in order to elicit a virus-specific immune response in the respiratory tract.
  • Multiple intragastric (oral) administration of live or killed Sendai virus induced IgA and IgG antiviral antibodies in both gastrointestinal secretions and serum.
  • Antiviral antibodies induced in respiratory secretions by oral killed virus plus cholera toxin, however, were variable and protection from virus challenge was not demonstrated.
  • On the other hand, protection of the lower respiratory tract was correlated with IgG antiviral antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Administration, Intranasal. Administration, Oral. Animals. Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis. Antigens, Viral / administration & dosage. Antigens, Viral / immunology. Cholera Toxin / administration & dosage. Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis. Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis. Intestinal Mucosa / immunology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Nasal Mucosa / immunology. Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage. Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology

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  • (PMID = 2824609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-82582; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-37117
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Vaccines, Attenuated; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 9012-63-9 / Cholera Toxin
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88. Zheng J, Thylin MR, Ghorpade A, Xiong H, Persidsky Y, Cotter R, Niemann D, Che M, Zeng YC, Gelbard HA, Shepard RB, Swartz JM, Gendelman HE: Intracellular CXCR4 signaling, neuronal apoptosis and neuropathogenic mechanisms of HIV-1-associated dementia. J Neuroimmunol; 1999 Aug 3;98(2):185-200
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  • SDF-1beta/beta was expressed in HAD brain tissue and upregulated in astrocytes exposed to virus infected and/or immune activated MDM conditioned media (fluids).
  • HIV-1-infected MDM secretions, virus and SDF-1beta induced a G inhibitory (Gi) protein-linked decrease in cyclic AMP (cAMP) and increase inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium.
  • Such effects were partially blocked by antibodies to CXCR4 or removal of virus from MDM fluids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytes / chemistry. Astrocytes / cytology. Astrocytes / virology. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / virology. Cells, Cultured. Chemokine CXCL12. Chemokines, CXC / genetics. Chemokines, CXC / immunology. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials / immunology. Fetus / cytology. Gene Expression / immunology. HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology. HIV-1 / growth & development. HIV-1 / immunology. Hippocampus / cytology. Hippocampus / immunology. Hippocampus / virology. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Macrophages / immunology. Macrophages / virology. Microscopy, Electron. Monocytes / immunology. Monocytes / virology. Oligonucleotide Probes. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Synaptic Transmission / immunology

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  • (PMID = 10430052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 501 NS34239-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS31492-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS34239-01; etc
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / HIV Envelope Protein gp120; 0 / Oligonucleotide Probes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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89. Tuccari G, Barresi G: Lactoferrin in human tumours: immunohistochemical investigations during more than 25 years. Biometals; 2011 Oct;24(5):775-84
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  • In humans, under normal conditions, LF has been found in blood, mucosal secretions, gastrointestinal fluids, urine and mostly in milk and colostrum.

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  • (PMID = 21472415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-8773
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
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90. Nightingale JM: Management of patients with a short bowel. Nutrition; 1999 Jul-Aug;15(7-8):633-7
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  • The normal human small intestinal length ranges from about 3 to 8 m, thus if the initial small intestinal length is short, a relatively small resection of the intestine may result in the problems of a short bowel.
  • This high-volume jejunostomy output is treated by restricting oral fluids, giving a glucose-saline solution to drink, and using drugs that either reduce gastrointestinal motility (loperamide or codeine phosphate) or secretions (H2 antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, or octreotide).
  • With current therapy most patients with a short bowel have a normal body mass index and a good quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Physiological. Body Water / metabolism. Cholelithiasis / etiology. Colon / physiopathology. Diet. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Intestine, Small / pathology. Intestine, Small / physiopathology. Intestine, Small / transplantation. Jejunostomy / adverse effects. Minerals / metabolism. Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Social Problems

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  • (PMID = 10422101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-9007
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutrition
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Minerals
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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91. Nicastri E, Petrosillo N, Macrì G, Ippolito G: [Severe acute respiratory syndrome: the first transmissible disease of the 21st century]. Recenti Prog Med; 2003 Jul-Aug;94(7-8):295-303
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  • The exposure to respiratory droplets and the contact with biologic fluids (respiratory and gastrointestinal secretions) represent the most efficient transmission modality of the SARS-related coronavirus.
  • The spread of SARS, to less developed country with limited resource for public health programs, represent the emerging alarming threat in the new global scenario.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. China / epidemiology. Global Health. Hong Kong / epidemiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Ribavirin / administration & dosage. Ribavirin / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Travel. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 12868234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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92. Rabbie SC, Flanagan T, Martin PD, Basit AW: Inter-subject variability in intestinal drug solubility. Int J Pharm; 2015 May 15;485(1-2):229-34
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  • [Title] Inter-subject variability in intestinal drug solubility.
  • In this study, the solubility of furosemide and dipyridamole - drugs known to have highly variable oral bioavailabilities - was investigated in individual ileostomy fluids from 10 subjects with ulcerative colitis.
  • For comparison, drug solubility was also determined in pooled upper gastrointestinal fluids from healthy human subjects and simulated intestinal fluids.
  • Drug solubility in ileostomy fluids showed high variability.
  • Correlation analysis revealed that dipyridamole solubility in these fluids is pH-dependent, whereas furosemide solubility was highly correlated to buffer capacity and pH.
  • [MeSH-major] Dipyridamole / chemistry. Furosemide / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Biological Availability. Buffers. Colitis, Ulcerative / metabolism. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Ileostomy. Intestinal Absorption. Models, Biological. Solubility

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 25758158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Buffers; 64ALC7F90C / Dipyridamole; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Gastrointestinal fluids / Humans / Inter-subject variability / Oral absorption / Solubility
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93. Nciri N, Cho N, El Mhamdi F, Ben Mansour A, Haj Sassi F, Ben Aissa-Fennira F: Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine. J Med Food; 2016 Jan;19(1):85-97
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  • Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study.
  • After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected.
  • All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques.
  • The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera.

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  • (PMID = 26561877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. / ileum / jejunum / phytohemagglutinins / white kidney beans
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94. HARDY JD: The adrenal cortex and postoperative gastrointestinal secretions; clinical significance of these effects. Surgery; 1951 Apr;29(4):517-22
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  • [Title] The adrenal cortex and postoperative gastrointestinal secretions; clinical significance of these effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Body Fluids. Intestines. Urine

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  • (PMID = 14835144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5120:67836:13:419:482
  • [Keywords] NLM ; ADRENAL CORTEX (major topic) / INTESTINES (major topic) / URINE (major topic)
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95. Pedersen BL, Müllertz A, Brøndsted H, Kristensen HG: A comparison of the solubility of danazol in human and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Pharm Res; 2000 Jul;17(7):891-4
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  • [Title] A comparison of the solubility of danazol in human and simulated gastrointestinal fluids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Acids and Salts / chemistry. Danazol / chemistry. Estrogen Antagonists / chemistry. Gastric Juice / chemistry. Intestinal Secretions / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 10990211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; N29QWW3BUO / Danazol
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96. YOUNG HM, McGOWAN JM: Parenteral fluids in the surgical patient; with special reference to pre- and postoperative care in serious gastrointestinal lesions. Rev Gastroenterol; 1951 Feb;18(2):96-105
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  • [Title] Parenteral fluids in the surgical patient; with special reference to pre- and postoperative care in serious gastrointestinal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids. Digestive System. Feces. Fluids and Secretions. Patients. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 14816632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0096-2929
  • [Journal-full-title] The Review of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5120:48429:268:347
  • [Keywords] NLM ; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (major topic) / FLUIDS (major topic)
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97. MABRY CC, GREENLAW RH, DEVORE WD: MEASUREMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL LOSS OF PLASMA ALBUMIN: A CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF 51CHROMIUM LABELED ALBUMIN. J Nucl Med; 1965 Feb;6:93-108
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  • [Title] MEASUREMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL LOSS OF PLASMA ALBUMIN: A CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF 51CHROMIUM LABELED ALBUMIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins. Chromium Isotopes. Diagnosis. Feces. Fluids and Secretions. Laboratories. Metabolism. Protein-Losing Enteropathies. Radiometry. Serum Albumin. Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated. Urine

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  • (PMID = 14269596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Chromium Isotopes; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated
  • [Keywords] NLM ; CHROMIUM ISOTOPES (major topic) / DIAGNOSIS (major topic) / DOGS (major topic) / EXCRETION (major topic) / FECES (major topic) / METABOLISM (major topic) / PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES (major topic) / RADIOMETRY (major topic) / SERUM ALBUMIN (major topic) / SERUM ALBUMIN, RADIO-IODINATED (major topic) / URINE (major topic)
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98. TIMESKOV IS: [Conditioned reflex function of the principal gastrointestinal glands in normal subjects and in peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis]. Tr Leningr Sanitarnogig Med Inst; 1957;34:9-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Conditioned reflex function of the principal gastrointestinal glands in normal subjects and in peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis].
  • [MeSH-major] Body Fluids. Conditioning, Classical. Duodenum. Gastric Juice. Gastritis / physiology. Intestinal Secretions. Peptic Ulcer / physiology. Reflex

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Peptic Ulcer.
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  • (PMID = 13468059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-9367
  • [Journal-full-title] Trudy Leningradskogo sanitarno-gigienicheskogo meditsinskogo instituta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tr Leningr Sanitarnogig Med Inst
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5833:10731:162:209:210:383:437
  • [Keywords] NLM ; DUODENAL JUICE (major topic) / GASTRIC JUICE (major topic) / GASTRITIS/physiology (major topic) / PEPTIC ULCER/physiology (major topic) / REFLEX, CONDITIONED (major topic)
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99. DIOGUARDI N, VENTURA L: [Effect of nicotinic acid and its amides on nicotinic acid and its products in the duodenal juice]. Riv Gastroenterol; 1951 Nov-Dec;3(6):217-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Amides. Body Fluids. Duodenum. Intestinal Secretions. Niacin / metabolism. Nicotinic Acids

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NICOTINIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 14900854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-6255
  • [Journal-full-title] Rivista di gastro-enterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Riv Gastroenterol
  • [Language] und
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 2679MF687A / Niacin
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5221:31363:115:259
  • [Keywords] NLM ; DUODENAL JUICE (major topic) / NICOTINIC ACID/metabolism (major topic)
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100. DIOGUARDI N, MAGNONI A Jr: [Level of nicotinic acid, trigonelline and trogonellinamide in duodenal juice in normal men]. Riv Gastroenterol; 1951 Nov-Dec;3(6):213
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkaloids. Body Fluids. Duodenum. Intestinal Secretions. Niacin / metabolism. Nicotinic Acids

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TRIGONELLINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NICOTINIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 14900853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-6255
  • [Journal-full-title] Rivista di gastro-enterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Riv Gastroenterol
  • [Language] und
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 2679MF687A / Niacin; 3NQ9N60I00 / trigonelline
  • [Other-IDs] CLML/ 5221:31362:115:259
  • [Keywords] NLM ; DUODENAL JUICE (major topic) / NICOTINIC ACID/metabolism (major topic)
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